Since it was completed in the early 13th century, the Holyrood Abbey Church has acted as a fulcrum for major events in Scottish and English history. Tracing the history of the church tells the story of Scotland's relationship with its neighbors to the south, and its ruined state neatly summarizes the results of English colonization in the British Isles.
Founded by King David in the 12th century, the Abbey's name refers to the King's experience with a charging deer and the shining holy cross that appeared in the forest to save his life. When it was first built, the church was a grand structure with huge sweeping towers and a massive nave. Since it was near Edinburgh Castle, Kings regularly stayed at the Abbey and used the church, but its period of regular use was slowly coming to an end.
In 1544, regular war and invasion from England began to take a toll on the church as structural damage occurred during the War of Rough Wooing. Only ten years later, parts of the church were deemed unnecessary and were also removed. Although the Abbey was remodeled in 1633, its improvement did not last long.
During the glorious revolution, English forces once again struck a deadly toll, as a mob looted the church and destroyed the roof in 1688. At this point, Holyrood had nearly taken on the form it has now. An attempt to replace the roof was shoddily made in 1768 and fell in on itself within a decade. Today, the Abbey Church stands as it has for the last 250 years as ruins next to the Palace in the middle of Scotland's capital city, Edinburgh.