Once a wealthy San Francisco businessman and landowner, Joshua Norton lost his fortune speculating on rice prices in the 1850s and descended into a gloomy and destitute self-exile for several years. Then on September 17, 1859, he publicly declared himself Norton I, Emperor of the United States, and later, Protector of Mexico. Encouraged by the local newspapers, he issued numerous public decrees on matters of public policy and later issued his own currency, which was widely accepted in San Francisco.
The army furnished him with a uniform befitting his status as Emperor, the local theaters provided him with seats on opening night. Meanwhile, he wandered the city streets, visited local clubs, and slept in a flophouse. In the 1870 national census, Norton’s occupation is officially listed as ‘emperor’. On the same census, it is noted that he does not have the right to vote. In that column, the reason is entered as ‘insane’.
Though he was considered insane, or at least highly eccentric, the citizens of San Francisco celebrated his regal presence and his proclamations — most famously, his “order” that the United States Congress be dissolved by force (which Congress and the U.S. Army ignored) and his numerous decrees calling for a bridge and a tunnel to be built across San Francisco Bay. He was reported to have been articulate and well-read, had progressive ideals, and played a mean game of chess.
On January 8, 1880, after a reign of 20 years, Norton collapsed at a street corner and died before he could be given medical treatment. In covering Norton’s funeral, the San Francisco Chronicle — under the headline “Le Roi est Mort” (“The King is Dead”) — reported that 10,000 mourners visited his body in the state, followed by a small procession to his first burial at the Masonic Cemetery. In 1934, Norton’s remains were transferred, as were all graves in the city, at the expense of the City of San Francisco to a gravesite of moderate splendor at Woodlawn Cemetery, in Colma, south of San Francisco. The site is marked by a large stone inscribed “Norton I, Emperor of the United States and Protector of Mexico”.
Know Before You Go
Enter Woodlawn Memorial Park (castle-looking structure) and turn to the left after the entrance. Follow the road to the rear of the cemetery. After passing the veteran's area on the right, and before you get to Cypress Garden, Emperor Norton's grave is on the left. Look for a small cluster of four trees nearby. If you have trouble finding the grave, ask for directions in the office (they're happy to give you a map).